Dog Feeding Ingredients

The balanced dog food has to contain all nutritious elements necessary for healthy development of pets. Organic substances — fats, proteins and carbohydrates — are necessary for energy development. In addition, they participate in the hemopoietic processes, and also regulate work of some organs.

Proteins

Proteins are the main construction material of an organism as they take part in creation of all tissues. Dogs have to receive both vegetable, and animal protein in the necessary volume. The day need for proteins makes 4,5 g on 1 kg of weight for adult individuals; for puppies — 9 g

Fats are the organic substances necessary for each dog.

Among their functions there are:

  • supply of an animal with energy;
  • contribution to digestion of A, D, E, K vitamins;
  • providing organism of a dog with fatty acids.

If the animal doesn't receive fatty acids, the state of its skin and hair worsens, work of kidneys and a liver is broken. Also these substances play a role in control of some disturbances, for example, of a hypersensitivity to fleabites, autoimmune diseases, cancer.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates provide the main part from the general caloric content of a ration of dogs. In an organism, carbohydrates turn into glucose. They are necessary for maintenance of health of a liver, nervous and muscular system. The daily norm of carbohydrates for adult individuals makes 10 g on 1 kg of body weight; for puppies — 15,3 g. In processes of carbohydrate metabolism, the main role is played by glucose, glycogen and dietary fiber.

A
  • Amino acids
    • Amino acids are a component of proteins. They contain in fodder of animal origin. The lack of amino acids leads to disturbance of protein metabolism that causes serious problems with growth and the correct development.
    • To the acids, necessary for the pet, belong the following:
    • - A lysine is an important amino acid which carries out a series of functions, necessary for an organism of a dog. The most significant of them is participation in processes of synthesis of fabric proteins. The lysine is necessary also for formation of insulin and creatine. The last plays an important role in maintenance of a muscle tonus of pets. The day need of an adult dog for a lysine makes 60 mg on 1 kg of body weight.
  • Arachidonic acid
    • Arachidonic acid is one of kinds of complex fatty acids which are developed in an organism of a dog.
    • Despite it, it is necessary to watch that the forage of the pet has all necessary organic elements.
    • Shortage of an arachidonat conducts to:

    - development of a dermatitis;

    - decrease in immunity;

    - illnesses of a liver and kidneys;

    - augmentation of quantity of leucocytes in a blood.

  • Ascorbic acid
    • The main role of vitamin C in an organism of a dog is immunity rising. It also influences on:
    • - strengthening of walls of vessels;
    • - general emotional background;
    • - development of an organism of puppies.
    • The organism of a dog synthesizes vitamin C independently. But it is considered that during stresses and illnesses many elements including vitamin C, are strenuously brought out of the pet's organism. For this reason the animal has to receive the necessary volume of trace substances with a forage.
B
  • Beta carotene
    • Vitamin A and beta carotene contribute to normalization of a set of processes in an organism of a dog:
    • - increase fastness to viruses and infections;
    • - accelerate process of growth and development;
    • - improve sight, motility and coordination.
    • Shortage of these elements can cause the mass of unpleasant consequences, namely depression of functions of an endocrine gland, disturbance of a metabolism, and also development of genitourinary illnesses.
  • Biotin
    • Biotin is the vitamin promoting production of hemoglobin in an organism of a dog. In addition, it helps at:

    - the increased hair loss;
    - treatment and prophylaxis of dermal diseases;
    - depression of protective functions of immune system.

    • Biotin accelerates process of a metabolism in an organism. Shortage of this vitamin can result in increased fatigue, a sleepiness, appetite loss, and also muscular pains.
C
  • Calcium
    • Calcium is one of the most important elements in an organism of a dog which provides:

    - formation of bones and teeth;
    - coagulability of a blood;
    - reduction of muscles.

    • Deficiency of a calcium often is followed by excess of phosphorus. At the same time animals have weakness, a growth inhibition, appetite loss, a curvature of extremities.
  • Carbohydrate
    • Carbohydrates are an excellent energy source and vital forces. They supply tissues with a glucose, participate in formation of many amino acids and are structural components of tissues.
    • There are fast" or "slow" carbohydrates which variously sate an organism. "Slow" carbohydrates which contain in cereals, fruit and vegetables are more useful.
    • The daily norm of carbohydrates for adult individuals makes 10 g on 1 kg of body weight; for puppies — 15,3 g. In processes of carbohydrate metabolism, the main role is played by glucose, glycogen and dietary fiber.
  • Choline
    • Choline is an important trace substance which promotes improvement of brain activity of pets. Also it carries out the following functions:
    • - promotes detoxicating of a liver;
    • - prevents alienations;
    • - improves digestion.
    • More often the need for a choline is enlarged at prevalence in a ration of fat products, and also at a B5 vitamin surplus.
  • Chrome
    • Chrome is the important trace substance involved in many processes of organism functioning.
    • Among its useful properties are the following:
    - decrease of risk of development of cardiovascular diseases;
    - strengthening of bones and joints.
    • Additives with chrome are especially recommended to pets with an excess weight. The lack of this element of an organism of an animal affects the state of hair, claws and bones as it is present there at the greatest number.
  • Cobalt
    • Cobalt contains in B12 vitamin which has important antianemic effect. It takes part in synthesis of this vitamin.
    • Also this element has some other useful properties:
    - increases hemoglobin level;
    - accelerates process of a metabolism;
    - improves fermentation in a stomach.
    • Cobalt in the necessary quantity contains in special mineral additional nutrition.
  • Copper
    • Copper is an important trace substance, its lack can harmfully affect a condition of an organism of the pet and cause the following:

    - anemias;

    - defects of bones and their slowed-down growth;

    - heart failure;

    - depression of reproductive potential.

    • Also copper is important foras it is a part of a melanin. Thanks to this element healthy appearance of fur and hair is maintained.
  • Cystine
    • Cystine is an amino acid that activates insulin in the blood. Also cystine along with a tryptophan takes part in formation of bile acids. Thereby it promotes effective absorption of nutrients from an intestine.
D
  • Dietary fiber
    • Dietary fiber is an alimentary fiber which in an organism of a dog is involved in the following processes:
    • - normalization of stool;
    • - prophylaxis of a colon cancer;
    • - weight reduction.
    • Also this substance helps at Diabetum and an inflammation of proctal glands.
  • DL-Methionine
    • Methionine is an irreplaceable amino acids. Its functions in an organism of a dog include:
    • - adjustment of nitric balance;
    • - participation in synthesis of a creatine, adrenaline and some other compounds important for an animal;
    • - excision of excess of fat from a liver;
    • - prevention of adjournment of fats on walls of vessels and in a liver;
    • - beneficial influence on digestive processes;
    • - neutralization of a set of toxic products;
    • - hair growth stimulation, etc.
E
  • Egg white
    • Proteins are the main source of amino acids. These substances are responsible for a set of processes in an organism of a dog. For example:

    - normalization of a metabolism;
    - intensifying of protective functions;
    - digestion improvement, etc.

    • It is worth noticing that the organism of a dog doesn't have protein reserves. For this reason it is worth watching that these elements surely are present at a daily ration of a dog.
F
  • Ferrous
    • Iron is necessary for pets for prophylaxis of anemia, rising of resilience of an organism to illnesses, appetite improvements.
    • Also iron participates in two processes, vital for an organism: metabolism and synthesis of a hemoglobin.
    • Process of tissue respiration also takes place with the participation of iron. Signs of iron lack are a flaccidity, anemia, weak growth.
  • Folic acid
    • Folic acid is an important vitamin which is necessary for the correct functioning of immune and circulatory systems. Also it positively influences work of marrow and a condition of mucosas.
    • B9 vitamin is especially recommended for pregnant dogs as it has beneficial influence on Genital system of dogs. Also it prevents emergence of congenital pathologies in posterity.
G
  • Glucose
    • The glucose is an energy source for all organism of a dog. This important element is necessary for the correct work of nervous and cardiovascular system. However the excess of glucose in a blood can cause excess weight in the pet.
  • Glycogen
    • Glycogen carries out the function, vital for an organism - regulates the level of glucose in a blood. Also it is important for the correct functioning and a filtration of a liver.
H
  • Histidine
    • Histidine promotes much processes, important for health of dogs. First, it is necessary for the correct energy balance in an organism of pets. Secondly, histidinum participates in blood formation processes — erythrocytes and hemoglobin formation. Also it is necessary for full development of muscles and tendons. The daily need of histidinum for adult individuals makes 60 mg on 1 kg of body weight.
I
  • Inositol
    • Inositol (vitamin B8) exerts beneficial influence on an organism of a dog. It helps to use a glycogen as an energy source and brings benefit at the diabetes mellitus and some other illnesses bound to excess body weight.
    • Deficiency of an inozitol provokes muscular pains, problems with a liver and a gall bladder.
  • Iodine
    • Iiodine compounds are formed and collect in a thyroid gland. There its resetting and distribution take place.
    • Iodine is important for:
    • - correct functioning of Genital system;
    • - differentiations of cells;
    • - adjustments of process of a metabolism.
    • The iodine deficiency negatively affects Genital system as this trace substance is inseparably linked with hormones.
L
  • L-carnitine
    • The carnitine in an organism of a dog participates in delivery of fatty acids to a mitochondrion where the process of their oxidation takes place. At the same time a large amount of energy is formed. The carnitine is especially useful for dogs at heart troubles, obesity, appreciable loads.
  • Linoleic acid
    • This fatty acid has huge value for maintenance of health of dogs. In particular, it influences on:

    - state of hair and skin;
    - Genital ability;
    - renal function.

    • Arachidonic acid is formed of this substance in an organism of a dog. Its lack leads to decrease in immunity, illnesses of a liver and other problems.
M
  • Magnesium
    • Magnesium is responsible for the following processes:

    - energy production at the cellular level;
    - health of bones;
    - work of a nervous system;
    - absorption and use of some vitamins and minerals;
    - growth of teeth.

    • Magnesium interferes with hit in cells of surplus of a calcium. So it prevents an excess muscle tension. At a lack of this substance, hyperexcitability and cramps are observed. If a failure of a magnesium gains chronic character, calcium salts are laid on walls of vessels.
  • Manganese
    • Manganese is an important trace substance that contains in all tissues and organs. Therefore it has fortifying effect on the whole organism in general, namely:
    - positively influences development of bones;
    - regulates a condition of a nervous system;
    - takes part in fermentation processes.
    • The deficiency of manganese causes problems with a skeleton and joints, and also disturbance of functions of Genital system.
  • Methionine
    • Methionine is an irreplaceable amino acids. Its functions in an organism of a dog include:
    • - adjustment of nitric balance;
    • - participation in synthesis of a creatine, adrenaline and some other compounds important for an animal;
    • - excision of excess of fat from a liver;
    • - prevention of adjournment of fats on walls of vessels and in a liver;
    • - beneficial influence on digestive processes;
    • - neutralization of a set of toxic products;
    • - hair growth stimulation, etc.
    • The lack of this amino acid can arise at adult dogs when they eat vegetable nutrition and organ meats. The daly value of methionine for adult dogs makes 70 mg on 1 kg of body weight.
  • Minerals
    • The minerals, necessary for animals, are divided into two groups: major elements and trace substances.
    • Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur belong to the first group. Chrome, cobalt, iodine, copper, etc - to the second one.
    • The daily requirement for major mineral elements fluctuates from several milligrams to several grams. In trace substances, in turn, the organism needs tens times less.
  • Molybdenum
    • Molybdenum is a trace substance, essential for any organism.
    • This mineral possesses the following properties:
    • - strengthens an adamantine substance of tooth;
    • - participates in digestion of nitrogen;
    • - is a part of important enzymes.
    • Concentration of a molybdenum in an organism shouldn't be great. Usually food and supplements contain the necessary balanced amount of this mineral compounds.
N
  • Nicotinic acid
    • The lack of nicotinic acid of an organism of a dog provokes failures in work of the nervous and alimentary system. At the same time tongue becomes dark brown, and then cerise and even black. Also other problems are possible, for example:
    • - deterioration in appetite;
    • - emaciation;
    • - erubescence, puffiness, rugosity, ecdysis;
    • - lacks of coordination.
O
  • Omega 3
    • Omega-3 fatty acids carry out one of key tasks for an organism of a dog. They are capable to prevent growth of malignant tumors. These polyunsaturated acids also:

    - strengthen immune system;
    - reduce cholesterin level in a blood;
    - promote prophylaxis of an allergy.

    • Considering all positive characteristics of Omega-3 acid, it is difficult to overestimate its importance for a ration of a dog.
  • Omega 6
    • Omega-6 fatty acids are very important for maintenance of health of a skin and hair of dogs. At a lack of the Omega-6, mucosa and integuments are damaged first of all. It can lead to diseases of:

    - digestive tube;
    - respiratory and Genital system;
    - dermatologic character.

    • At enough quantity of Omega-6 acid in an organism. hair of a dog becomes dense and brilliant.
P
  • Phenylalanine
    • Phenylalanine contains in many sources of protein. This amino acid is necessary for maintenance of activity of enzymes that play an important role in digestion processes. Besides, it provides the correct functioning of hormones. At a deficiency of phenylalanine, it is necessary to enlarge amount of protein in a ration of a dog. Day need of this amino acid for adult individuals is 65 mg on 1 kg of body weight.
  • Phosphorus
    • Phosphorus is vital to dogs for formation of a strong skeleton and teeth. Also it plays an important role in the course of a metabolism and in maintenance of acid-base balance of a blood.
    • Phosphorus is necessary for healthy development of an organism during feeding and growtht. Don't forget that dogs are especially inclined to musculoskeletal system injuries. For this reason it is very important to watch that the forage of the pet contained all necessary minerals and vitamins useful to muscles and bones.
  • Potassium
    • Potassium is the mineral substance necessary for dogs of all breeds and age. Its role in an organism is great:

    - participation in protein metabolism;
    - adjustment of content of water in tissues;
    - maintenance in a blood of acid-base balance.

  • Pyridoxine
    • B6 vitamin or pyridoxine is irreplaceable for the correct functioning of immune and nervous systems of the pet. It has the following effects:

    - resilience to infections increases;
    - the condition of a skin improves;
    - the condition of Genital system becomes stronger.

    • In spite of the fact that the pyridoxine can be developed by intestine microorganisms, the main amount of vitamin has to come to the pet's organism with nutrition.
R
  • Riboflavin
    • B2 vitamin is an important and necessary element of a ration of each dog. Riboflavinum promotes:
    • - to normal work of a retina of an eye;
    • - to prevention of a dermatitis;
    • - to the correct functioning of the central nervous system.
    • Vitamin improves a metabolism in an organism. It takes part in transformation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates into energy.
S
  • Selenium
    • Therapeutic properties of selenium were discovered not so long ago. Nevertheless, this trace substance exclusively positively influences the whole organism of the pet.
    • Namely:
    - regulates oxidizing processes;
    - strengthens immune system;
    - has an antioxidative effect.
    • Selenium is well combined with vitamin E. In a combination these two substances have a notable medical effect on the skin condition and liver function.
  • Sodium
    • At deficiency of sodium, the following disorders are observed:

    - flaccidity;
    - changes in consciousness;
    - disturbances in work of the alimentary system, etc.

  • Sodium chloride
    • Sodium and chlorine take part in maintenance of osmotic and acid-base balance. Sodium mainly contains in soft tissues and liquids of a body.
    • The role of this element in an organism of animals are the following:
    - reduction of muscles;
    - transfer of nervous impulses;
    - saturation of cells by glucose.
    • Chlorine contains in intercellular liquid, a blood, a skin, a bone tissue. In the form of the hydrochloric acid it is a part of a gastric juice.
    • If the animal doesn't receive enough sodium and chlorine, its appetite worsens, growth and development are slowed down. At a lack of chlorine, secretion of the hydrochloric acid decreases.
    • It results in failures in digestion process.
  • Sulfur
    • Sulfur in an organism of animals is a part of amino acids. Its most part is concentrated in a skin, indumentum, hoofs.
    • most important functions are the following:The
    - participation in creation of tissues;
    - protection of an organism against harmful foreign substances;
    - maintenance of a good state of wool.
    • If the organism of an animal lacks sulfur, then there are numerous problems, including an anorexia, debility, loss of weight.
T
  • Taurine
    • The taurine is vital for pets for proper work of heart and visual acuity. Also it:
    • - positively influences nervous and immune system;
    • - interferes with emergence of thrombi;
    • - provides a normal embryonal development.
    • In difference from cats, the organism of dogs can independently synthesize a taurine. Nevertheless, its lack can arise during a reduced-protein diet.
  • Thiamin
    • B1 vitamin is essential for the correct process of a metabolism. Also it is necessary for a normal work of muscle , heart and a nervous system. Enough volume of thiaminum improves:
    • - work of a digestive tract;
    • - condition of a skin;
    • - work of a nervous system;
    • - tonus of muscles and heart.
    • It is necessary to remember that B1 vitamin is damaged from thermal influence. When feeding the pet, it is important to consider this fact.
  • Tryptophan
    • Tryptophan contains in carbohydrates, in particular in vegetable oil and milk. It has the abirritating properties, and also positively influences development of a musculation. The daily need of dogs for a tryptophan makes 15 g on 1 kg of body weight.
V
  • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin A and beta carotene contribute to normalization of a set of processes in an organism of a dog:

    - increase fastness to viruses and infections;
    - accelerate process of growth and development;
    - improve sight, motility and coordination.

    • Shortage of these elements can cause the mass of unpleasant consequences, namely depression of functions of an endocrine gland, disturbance of a metabolism, and also development of genitourinary illnesses.
  • Vitamin B1
    • B1 vitamin is essential for the correct process of a metabolism. Also it is necessary for a normal work of muscle , heart and a nervous system. Enough volume of thiaminum improves:
    • - work of a digestive tract;
    • - condition of a skin;
    • - work of a nervous system;
    • - tonus of muscles and heart.
    • It is necessary to remember that B1 vitamin is damaged from thermal influence. When feeding the pet, it is important to consider this fact.
  • Vitamin B12
    • B12 vitamin is one of the few elements that collects in an organism of a dog. It promotes:

    - to hemoglobin rising;
    - to formation of nervous cells;
    - to cholesterin lowering of the level.

    • Shortage of B12 vitamin is followed by the following symptoms: loss of appetite, increased fatigue and irritability, an arrhythmia and a dyspnea after mild exercise stresses.
  • Vitamin B2
    • B2 vitamin is an important and necessary element of a ration of each dog. Riboflavinum promotes:

    - to normal work of a retina of an eye;
    - to prevention of a dermatitis;
    - to the correct functioning of the central nervous system.

    • Vitamin improves a metabolism in an organism. It takes part in transformation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates into energy.
  • Vitamin B5
    • B5 vitamin provides a full-fledged metabolism to dogs. Also pantothenic acid is especially important for maintenance of healthy hair and skin. This vitamin promotes:

    - to prevention of a dermatitis;
    - to an adhesion of wounds;
    - to treatment of illnesses of kidneys.

    • Pantothenic acid also well influences work of a nervous system.
  • Vitamin B6
    • B6 vitamin or pyridoxine is irreplaceable for the correct functioning of immune and nervous systems of the pet. It has the following effects:
    • - resilience to infections increases;
    • - the condition of a skin improves;
    • - the condition of genesial system becomes stronger.
    • In spite of the fact that the pyridoxine can be developed by intestine microorganisms, the main amount of vitamin has to come to the pet's organism with nutrition.
  • Vitamin B8
    • Inositol (vitamin B8) exerts beneficial influence on an organism of a dog. It helps to use a glycogen as an energy source and brings benefit at the diabetes mellitus and some other illnesses bound to excess body weight.
    • Deficiency of an inozitol provokes muscular pains, problems with a liver and a gall bladder.
  • Vitamin B9
    • Folic acid is an important vitamin which is necessary for the correct functioning of immune and circulatory systems. Also it positively influences work of marrow and a condition of mucosas.
    • B9 vitamin is especially recommended for pregnant dogs as it has beneficial influence on genesial system of dogs. Also it prevents emergence of congenital pathologies in posterity.
  • Vitamin C
    • The main role of vitamin C in an organism of a dog is immunity rising. It also influences on:
    • - strengthening of walls of vessels;
    • - general emotional background;
    • - development of an organism of puppies.
    • The organism of a dog synthesizes vitamin C independently. But it is considered that during stresses and illnesses many elements including vitamin C, are strenuously brought out of the pet's organism. For this reason the animal has to receive the necessary volume of trace substances with a forage.
  • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin D increases digestion of calcium and phosphorus. And it means that it influences on:

    - formation of bones of puppies;
    - immunity strengthening;
    - work of a liver and digestive tract.

    • The deficiency of vitamin D can lead to development of a rachitis in puppies. Puppies of mastiffs, St. Bernards and other large breeds aged from 2 till 6 months are ill more often than is when they are in an active growth phase.
  • Vitamin D3
    • D3 vitamin in an organism of a dog carries out the following functions:
    • - accelerates an absorption of phosphorus and a calcium from an intestine;
    • - regulates process of removal of phosphorus and calcium through kidneys;
    • - provides the optimum content of phosphorus and calcium in bones.
    • At deficiency of D3 vitamin, bones and joints are deformed. The lack of this substance is most dangerous for puppies of large and average breeds (huskies, laikas, Rottweilers, German shepherds, dogues, bulldogs, mastiffs).
  • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin E is one of the most necessary elements for the correct development of a dog. It promotes:

    - protection of an organism against bacterial and infectious diseases;
    - acceleration of process of neogenesis of the damaged tissues;
    - formation of capillaries and improvement of a tonus of vessels.

    • Vitamin E has to be present at a daily ration of the pet surely. The matter is that 70% of standard daily rate of this vitamin are output from an organism independently. For this reason it needs to be filled regularly.
Z
  • Zinc
    • Zinc is an important mineral which is a part of qualitative vitamin supplements and drugs.
    • It possesses the following properties:
    • Enlarges activity of enzymes;
    • Renders lipotropic effect — accelerates disintegration of fats;
    • Improves conditions of hair and a skin;
    • Positively influences carbohydrate metabolism;
    • Takes part in oxidation-reduction processes.
    • The risk of development of zinc deficiency can arise if the vegetable nutrition prevails in a ration of an animal.
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